Pakistan’s full spectrum deterrence

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Pakistani officials define our full spectrum minimum deterrence as India-specific. To put it simply, the strategic calculus is narrowed down to deterring a militarily and economically stronger India

Discussing Full Spectrum Deterrence (FSD) needs conceptual understanding. Conceptually, Pakistan’s treatment of FSD has been different from what others perceive. Dr Zafar Iqbal Cheema, the president/executive director of the Strategic Vision Institute (SVI) maintains that Pakistan’s National Command Authority (NCA) is clear that full spectrum deterrence, in its qualitative term, exists to plug the gaps in deterrence and address all forms of aggressions.