Pakistan has a fundamental interest in stabilising Afghanistan. I believe this is our major national security interest. Every piece of practical reasoning and evidence from history of the various Afghan wars, ancient and modern, would lead to this conclusion. The debris of the two longest wars fought in this region by the great powers has badly affected Pakistani society and the national security environment. Oddly, we have been part of both the wars, playing a direct part in the first one waged by anti-Soviet Mujahideen, and indirectly in the longer 14-year war, which has yet to see a peaceful end. The complexities that led local, national and international actors to get sucked into Afghanistan left hardly any room for Pakistan to isolate itself from the events taking place in its western neighbourhood.