The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is fast emerging as an influential organization bringing the powers of Eurasia to one table for regional cooperation, peace, and security. Founded by Beijing and Moscow, the Organization also stands as a symbol of the Sino-Russo partnership in the region. In the ongoing Great Power rivalry, particularly after the release of the US National Security Strategy (NSS) 2022, many questions arise: How SCO is going to respond to the escalating US-China tensions and US-Russia power tussle? What direction it is going to take in the days ahead?
The answers to these questions lie in the Samarkand Declaration and various other agreements that the SCO leaders adopted and signed in its Heads of the State Summit 2022, held in Uzbekistan from September 15 to 16, 2022. It comprises 21 articles covering all the issues ranging from security, economy, climate change, education, health, cultural diplomacy, and women empowerment. The choice of words highlights the intent and sets the future direction for the Eurasian leaders amidst Great Power rivalry.