The Mediterranean basin is a geographic area that encompasses more than 20 maritime states. Over the centuries, its geographical position has turned the Mediterranean into a real channel of communication and exchange of goods and services. The Cold War gave back centrality to the Mare Nostrum, as the Romans called the Mediterranean. The current Mediterranean scenario is characterised by a series of asymmetric and hybrid threats. The maritime environment lends itself to actions carried out by hybrid actors. Good examples are any terrorist actions with high media impact, such as those against vessels and offshore installations. In future, besides the already mentioned worsening of the hybrid threats, the Mediterranean scenario could see the return of a conventional actor with hegemonic ambitions in the area, namely the Russian Federation. Such a scenario would likely slow US disengagement from the Mediterranean.